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Search our database of 994 randomized evaluations conducted by our affiliates in 84 countries. To browse summaries of key policy recommendations from a subset of these evaluations, visit the Policy Publications tab.

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A teacher writes on chalk board in Kenya.


Flipcharts, School Inputs and Retrospective versus Prospective Analyses in Kenya

Michael Kremer, Paul Glewwe , Sylvie Moulin, Eric Zitzewitz

Evidence from Kenyan primary schools suggests that retrospective studies may seriously overestimate the impact of school inputs such as visual flipcharts on learning.


Teacher Incentives Based on Students' Test Scores in Kenya

Michael Kremer, Paul Glewwe , Nauman Ilias

In partnership with International Child Support, researchers designed and evaluated a incentives program that provided salary bonuses to teachers in Kenya based on the performance of their school as a whole on annual district exams. While results show that the incentives program led to an increase in student test scores, researchers believe that this increase was due to improved test-taking...

A teacher hands out textbooks to students in Kenya.


Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya

Michael Kremer, Paul Glewwe , Sylvie Moulin

The provision of textbooks in schools has no impact on average test scores or student attendance: test scores increased for already high-achieving students, but many in lower grades were unable to read them.

Education, Health

School Meals, Educational Achievement and School Finance in Kenya

Michael Kremer , Christel Vermeersch

Researchers examined the effects of subsidized school meals on school participation, educational achievement, and school finance in Western Kenya. The results suggest that the meals program led to improved school participation, as well as higher curriculum test scores, but only in schools where the teacher was relatively experienced prior to the program. The school meals also displaced teaching...